A musical instrument with a large belly, a short and curved handle, a beam and a plectrum. Its curved back is made of 19 or 21 boards in the form of a circle. The body is hollow. In the midst of the front part called the chest, there are small cavities on the sides called “roses”.
Oud instrument (written as “ud” in Turkish) is the ancestor of the European lute, name of which derives from “al-ud”. It is not a local Turkish instrument however it has been played in Anatolia for at the very least 5 centuries. Besides, within the history, the oud has been performed by a number of civilizations in Central Asia, Mesopotamia, Iran, Arabia. Accordingly, there are a number of types of ouds besides Turkish oud. The oud instrument occupies a terrific place in Turkish Artwork Music, Turkish urban music (in fasil orchestras) and in arabesk music. Oud has been known from the documents and oral tradition as the king, sultan or emir of musical instruments.
History of Oud
In some sources, it is said that Farabi invented the oud, however lengthy earlier than Farabi, there are oud and similar devices in miniatures and reliefs. The primary reason why Farabi is perceived as an inventor is that he is a musician who has mastered the oud and the tuning system he brought to the oud. Farabi, who was a kind of who gave essentially the most comprehensive information concerning the oud in his interval, added the 5th string to the oud, which was a four-string instrument till that time. About the oud, Ibn Sina (980/1037) from Farabi says in his book Kitabu’ş Şifa that it is one of the most well-known instruments. Tells technical information reminiscent of chords and pitches with figures. While musical devices have been talked about in the Ikhwan-i Safa tracts within the tenth century, it was said that the most lovely of these was the oud.
The frets on the handle of the oud, preserved in the Farabi period, have been abandoned towards the top of the 10th century. The oud was beforehand performed with a wooden plectrum. The famous Andalusian musician Ziryab (eleventh century) changed it with a plectrum made of eagle feather. Right now, plectrums made of flexible plastic are generally used.
The oud instrument made its way to Europe by means of Spain. Within the 13th century, the crusaders introduced it back to Europe, and in time, it grew to become the lute. That’s why lute takes its name after the oud (‘le ut’ in old French), but it’s been added completely different features from oud, like frets.
The oud, additionally which turned the focal point in the Ottoman palace in the fifteenth century, gained an irreplaceable value that the general public began to use in classical Turkish music within the nineteenth century.
Oud instrument has a large soundbox linked to a short neck. The instrument has a pear-shaped body which is a deep, striped bowl made from lightweight wood. The wood should be light because the bowl is meant to reverberate when it is struck. The soundboard, the front part of the body, incorporates one or , generally three sound holes. These sound holes could also be oval or they are often ornamented relying on the lands they are performed on. There is a piece of fish-skin or leather between the bridge and the sound gap as a way to protect the stomach from the strokes of the plectrum. The bowl of the oud is formed by thin woods or ribs bent over a mold. The number of the ribs varies from 16 to 21. The tuning pegs of the oud are screwed to the pegbox.
The quality of the fabric used within the making of the oudis important. The more the material is diverse, the better it sounds. A high-quality oud’s face is made from spruce. The tuning pegs and fingerboard are constructed from ebony. Maple, walnut, palisander and mahogany are used for the bowl.
The oud does not have any customary measurement or number of strings. But on the whole, all of the types of ouds have eleven gut strings that are organized in five double-programs with a sixth, single bass string. Oud is performed with a plectrum. Its fretless neck allows the instrument to generate any intervals or microtones particular to the Center Japanese music. Oud instrument is suitable so that you can enjoy Turkish, Iran or Arab music by playing makams/maqamat.
Oudis performed according to 2 schools of performance. The first is “Ottoman” school and it accepts as principle the ornamentation of the sound, produced by delicate glissandos or the fingers and slight vibratos. The second approach is Egyptian approach, according to which the amount is amplified by firm strokes of the plectrum, which makes strings resonate. This style requires another kind of virtuosity.
There are essentially six types of oud when they are considered according to their origin. These types of oud mostly differ of their timbre and there are small size differences between them.
Arabic oud is the most known oud instrument type and possibly the most popular because of its romantic, rich and deep sound. It’s heavier and slightly bigger evaluating to Turkish ouds. Turkish ouds are employed in Turkey and Greece. They have a more treble sound. Syrian oud, which is a sub-type of Arabic oud generates plenty of overtones. Iraqi ouds might also be categorized under Arabic ouds. Its strings are tied to the bottom of the instrument. Because of this feature, it is said that it has a floating bridge. Iranian oud, which can also be called Barbat is more distinct and because of its form, it has a bass, deep, Persian sound.
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